The danger of tsunami waves and the measures for reducing tsunami damage

Tweet on Twitter More than a decade ago, one of the deadliest natural disasters in history killedpeople in 14 countries around the Indian Ocean—nearlyof them in Indonesia.

The danger of tsunami waves and the measures for reducing tsunami damage

In most countries airports may be privately, municipally, or nationally owned and operated, and the siting of an airport may be subject to town and country planning or zoning regulations. Whether or not the establishment of an airport requires special permission, aircraft leaving or… Evolution of airports The requirements for airports have increased in complexity and scale since the earliest days of flying.

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Before World War II the landing and takeoff distance of most passenger-transport aircraft was at most metres 2, feet. Additional clear areas were provided for blind landings or bad-weather runs, but the total area involved rarely exceeded acres hectares. It was not until the general introduction of heavy monoplanes for transport, such as the Douglas DC-3during the late s that extensive takeoff and landing distances were needed.

Because even transport aircraft of the period were relatively light, paved runways were a rarity. Croydon, Tempelhof, and Le Bourget, for example, all operated from grass strips only. Early airports were also major centres of leisure activity, often attracting more visitors than passengers.

In La Guardia Airport attracted almostvisitors per month, reaching a peak of 7, in one day, compared with a maximum daily throughput of only 3, passengers.

The status of prewar airports as major social centres was reflected in their design, especially where the requirements of catering, observation decks, and parking were paramount.

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Indeed, the requirements of aircraft and passengers were not at all dominant at early airfields. Much long-distance air transport was handled by the large seaplanes known as flying boats or clippers. These aircraft, though slow and of limited range, offered a level of comfort that was necessary for long-distance travel.

Air terminal facilities were necessarily constructed close to large open stretches of water. La Guardia Airport and Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro are examples of airports that still operate on sites originally chosen for their ability to handle large seaplanes. The large facilities at Southampton Water in the United Kingdom have now disappeared, but the artificial lake at Linate Airport near MilanItalyis still to be found close to the present administration facilities.

The vast majority of airfields throughout the world are still relatively simple facilities. Even now, many have unpaved runways or at most lightly paved runways with tiny terminal or administration buildings, a rudimentary control tower, and crude landing aids. Such facilities can deal only with light aircraft and a negligible flow of passengers or freight.

Heavy air traffic, on the other hand, is now almost entirely handled by sophisticated airport facilities that can accommodate the needs of crew, passengers, and freight and the great range of aircraft types that have evolved to meet the needs of modern air transport and general aviation.

More than airports around the world now handle at least 10 million passengers each per year; nearly half of these are in the United States. Dozens of airports regularly move more than 30 million passengers on a yearly basis, and almost a dozen, ranging from the Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport in the U.

In order to meet the increasing demand for air travel, large transport aircraft powered by multiple jet and turboprop engines have been built. Such aircraft require extensive ground facilities, runways, taxiways, fire-fighting and rescue services, passenger- and cargo-handling facilities, access to car parking and public transport, lighting, navigational and approach aids, and various support facilities such as catering, meteorology, and governmental inspection.

In order to be attractively convenient, the complex of activities and facilities that make up a modern airport must be located sufficiently close to the main centres of world population.

At the same time, they must be adequately distant, so that the environmental problems associated with the noise of large aircraft and the activities of large numbers of passengers, workers, and visitors do not become intolerable to the cities that are served. They are immensely complex entities with regard to the physical facilities that they comprisethe organizations that are active within their boundaries, and the services that are provided in conjunction with their operation.

Physical facilities include runways, taxiways, aprons, and strips, which are used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, for the maneuvering and positioning of aircraft on the ground, and for the parking of aircraft in order to load and discharge passengers and cargo.

For the safe landing and takeoff of aircraft, lighting and radio navigational aids are provided. These are supplemented by airfield markings, signs and signals, and air traffic control facilities.

Support facilities on the airside of the field include meteorology, fire and rescue, power and other utilities, aircraft maintenance, and airport maintenance.

The danger of tsunami waves and the measures for reducing tsunami damage

Landside facilities are the passenger and cargo terminals and the access system, which includes parking, roads, public transport facilities, and loading and unloading areas.

Many organizations are involved in the operation of a modern airport. Overall management is usually in the control of an organization, authority, or company that holds a license to operate the facility. This license is granted subject to a judgment by the national civil aviation authorities that the managing body is fit and competent to run an airport within national and, if applicable, international laws governing safety and operations.

While overall responsibility for efficient, safe, and legal operation lies with the airport management, many of the individual services at an airport are provided by other organizations. Such organizations include airlines; air traffic control authorities; ground handling companies; fixed-base operators; concessionaires; security organizations; governmental agencies responsible for customs, immigration, health control, and police; support companies providing flight catering, fueling, aircraft engineering, and maintenance; aero clubs; and flying schools.

Since the early s, when privatization began to sweep through civil aviation, terminal-operation companies have also become more frequent, such as those that own terminals in Birmingham, Eng.

Airport services related to the aircraft are frequently referred to as airside.What is a flood? Flooding is an overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry. Floods can happen during heavy rains, when ocean waves come on shore, when snow melts too fast, or .

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Global Hazards Weekly Bulletin - [27th October - 2nd November ] Antarctica. An Iceberg 5 times bigger than Manhattan just broke off from Antarctica. If you do live in a coastal area, elevate your home to help reduce damage.

Most tsunami waves are less than 10 feet (3 meters). Do not assume that after one wave the danger is over. The next wave may be larger than the first one. • If you evacuate, take your animals with you.

If it is not safe for you, it is not safe for them. Quote HSE " Success in managing major Hazards is not measured by the Occupational Health and Safety Statistics but by measuring the performance of critical systems used to control risks to ensure they are operating as intended..

This statement is a very powerful statement and i want to stand on the premise that it should form the basis of assessing and formulating regulation regimes. The city of Rikuzentakata, Iwate Prefecture, suffered extensive damage from the tsunami, with almost the entirety of the lower area of the city being destroyed.

reducing TEPCO's total capacity by 21 GW. A tsunami wave flooded Sendai Airport at .

Global Hazards Weekly Bulletin - 17th - 23rd November