Essay norm reason rule selected

With so many people who openly admit to academic dishonesty, certain categories of students tend to exhibit more cheating behaviors than others.

Essay norm reason rule selected

Their evaluative element makes them unlike existential beliefs, which focus primarily on matters of truth or falsehood, correctness or incorrectness. Their cognitive element makes them unlike motives that can derive from emotions or psychological drives.

Values and norms involve cognitive beliefs of approval or disapproval. Although they tend to Essay norm reason rule selected through time and therefore faster continuity in society and human personality, they also are susceptible to change Moss and Susman ; Alwin The evaluative criteria represented in values and norms influence the behavior of subject units at multiple levels e.

For example, values and norms affect the evaluation of individuals as suitable marriage partners and in that way influence marital behavior. Values and norms also affect evaluation of the governing policies and practices of societies and thus have an impact on diplomatic relations and the policies of one society's government toward other societies.

It indicates the degree to which something is regarded as good versus bad. A value tends to be general rather than specific, transcending particular types of action and situations.

As a general evaluative criterion, it is used to assess specific behaviors in specific situations. The evaluative criteria represented by values derive from conceptions of morality, aesthetics, and achievement. That is, a mode, means, or end of action can be regarded as good or bad for moral, aesthetic, or cognitive reasons and often Essay norm reason rule selected a combination of those reasons Kluckhohn ; Parsons and Shils For example, being considerate of others may be valued positively i.

Since the distinguishing characteristic of a value is evaluation as good or bad, a value that has a cognitive basis is a function of cognitive appraisal based on competency and achievement rather than on scientific or utilitarian grounds.

For example, the choice of steel rather than iron to construct a building is a decision based on scientific or utilitarian criteria rather than on values.

The concept of a value must be differentiated from other concepts that appear to be similar.

Essay norm reason rule selected

One of those concepts is a preference. A value may be thought of as a type of preference, but not all preferences are values. The distinctive characteristic of a value is that it is based on a belief about what is desirable rather than on mere liking.

A preference for an equitable rather than inequitable distribution of rewards is a value, but a preference for vanilla rather than chocolate ice cream is not.

The concept of a value also bears some similarity to the concept of an attitude. Some analysts have suggested that a value is a type of attitude Fishbein and Ajzen ; Glennbut there are differences between the two concepts.

An attitude refers to an organization of several beliefs around a specific object or situation, whereas a value refers to a single belief of a specific kind: Because of its generality, a value occupies a more central and hierarchically important place in human personality and cognitive structure than does an attitude.

It is a determinant of attitudes as well as behavior. Thus, evaluations of numerous attitude objects and situations are based on a relatively small number of values. Not all attitudes, however, derive from values.

For example, an attitude toward skiing may be based on the extent to which that sport is found to be enjoyable rather than on a value. The concept of a value also differs from the concept of an interest in much the same way that it differs from the concept of an attitude, since an interest is a type of attitude that results in the directing of one's attention and action toward a focal object or situation.

As is true of attitudes more broadly, some interests derive from values but others do not. The concept of a value also can be distinguished from the related concept of a motive.

The basic property of a motive is the ability to induce valences incentives that may be positive or negative. A value has a motive property, involving a predisposition to act in a certain way, because it affects the evaluation of the expected consequences of an action and therefore the choice among possible alternatives; however, it is a less person-centered concept than a motive, which also encompasses emotions and drives.

A value is a particular type of motive involving a belief about the desirability of an action that derives from an evaluation of that action's expected consequences in a situation.

A value is a distinctively human motive, unlike motives that operate at both the human and the infrahuman levels. A value also differs from a need. Although both function as motives because of their ability to induce valences, a need is distinctive in being a requirement for the continued performance of an activity and the attainment of other valued outcomes Emerson Some needs have a biological basis; others are psychological, often deriving from the persistent frustration of important goals.

Although a value may arise from a need, becoming a cognitive transformation of that need, not all needs are transformed into values and not all values derive from needs.Essay: Assorted Canards of Contemporary Legal Analysis Antonin Scalia ASSORTED CANARDS OF CONTEMPORARY LEGAL ANALYSIS* Antonin Scalia** EVERY JUDGE, AND indeed perhaps every lawyer, acquires But I have selected for special mention the rule that "reme-.

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For selected-response tests, especially multiple-choice items, distractor analyses can aimed at criterion-referenced inferences than for those aimed at norm-referenced.

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Norm-referenced assessments of academic achievement, correlated to state or more classroom-based observations by teachers (other than the student’s teachers) and related services providers in the instructional environment(s) and during instruction in the area of concern.

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