The response highlights the cost the ruling Communist Party is willing to pay in lost sales and jobs to stick to plans that are fueling conflict with Washington, Europe and other trading partners. China retaliated with similar penalties. Beijing has issued a list of American goods for retaliation.
Realizing Sustainable Development of Foreign Trade Conclusion Foreword Peace, development and cooperation are the trends in today's world. Since the adoption of the reform and opening up policy more than 30 years ago, China has conformed to the trend of economic globalization by opening wider to the outside world and promoting economic and trade cooperation with other countries on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.
Through years of development, foreign trade has become one of China's most dynamic and fastest-growing sectors, placing China among the world's largest trade countries. China's foreign trade development has strengthened the nation's ties with the rest of the world, effectively pushed forward the country's modernization, Chinas reliance world market promoted world prosperity and progress.
During the past decade, China has quickened its integration into the global economy while its foreign trade has been further invigorated.
On the 10th anniversary of China's accession to the WTO, the Chinese government issues this White Paper to give a comprehensive introduction to China's foreign trade development. Historic Progress in China's Foreign Trade After the founding of the People's Republic of China PRC inChina adhered to the principle of independence and self-reliance, and gradually carried out economic and trade exchanges with foreign countries.
However, hindered by the international political environment at that time and the Chinas reliance world market planned economic system, China's foreign trade development was relatively slow.
In China entered the new period of reform and opening up. Devoting major efforts to the development of foreign trade became an important approach to accelerate modernization, shake off backwardness, promote the growth of economy, and improve comprehensive national strength.
Over the past 30 years or so, seizing the opportunity of the world economy's long-term prosperity and the deepening economic globalization, China has opened wider to the outside world, attracted and utilized foreign investment, introduced advanced technology, transformed and upgraded domestic industries, and achieved rapid development in foreign trade through all-round participation in the international division of labor and competition.
In the total value of China's import and export was only In the total value of China's import and export reached 2. In the total value of China's export was 1. Inthe total volumes of China's export and import accounted for By the end of China had been the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer for two consecutive years.
Figure 1 China's Import and Export of Goods -- The structure of China's trade in goods has fundamentally changed. China's export commodity structure shifted from the primary products dominated to manufactured goods dominated in the s, and from mainly light industrial and textile products to mainly mechanical and electronic products in the s.
In the new century, China's export of high-tech products, led by electronics and information technology commodities, has been increasingly expanded. In addition to state-owned enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises and private enterprises also engage in foreign trade, and their total value of import and export has each exceeded that of the state-owned enterprises.
From the s to the early 21st century, China's processing trade flourished, accounting for half of the country's foreign trade volume. Throughout China's foreign trade development, foreign-invested enterprises and processing trade have played very significant roles. Table 1 China's Export Commodity Structure -- China has formed an all-round and diversified import and export market.
Since the adoption of the reform and opening up policy, China has been promoting foreign trade on all fronts, and established trade relations with the vast majority of the world's countries and regions. China's trade partners have increased from a small number of countries and regions in to countries and regions now.
In this new century China's trade with newly emerging markets and developing countries has maintained sustained and relatively rapid growth. Figure 2 China's Top 10 Cargo Trade Partners in -- China's international competitiveness in services trade has been enhanced.
With its WTO entry, China's trade in services entered a new stage of development. With its scale rapidly enlarged and its pattern gradually optimized, China's trade in services now ranks among the top in the world.
China's trade in tourism, transport and other fields has maintained a steady growth momentum.
China's cross-border services in construction, communications, insurance, finance, computers and information, royalties and license fees, consultation and related fields, as well as service outsourcing, have been growing rapidly.
From to China's total services trade value excluding government services witnessed a more-than-five-fold growth from China's proportion in world services trade exports rose from 2.
China has grown into an open economy. Participation in the international division of labor and competition, introduction of advanced technology, equipment and management methods, and utilization of foreign direct investment have greatly promoted China's technological progress and industrial upgrading, and also improved the management and market competitiveness of its enterprises.The United States asks countries to take on their own challenges, foster their self-reliance, build their next generation of leaders, and then join us, in terms of leadership around the world, he.
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Oct 29, · China’s reliance on coal threatens the health of its people in the short-run and the health of the planet in the long-run.
China produces and consumes more coal than any nation. 6 Its reliance on coal is increasingly a problem for the world, as the international community devises policies to confront anthropogenic climate change.